International law began gaining prominence in Holland because of ______________. a. increased international commerce associated with advancing sea transportation technologies. b. increased military tension between Holland and Denmark.

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DQ2

International Law and International Organization

Before you begin, you will want to complete the Quick Review Questions for Chapter 8. These activities are designed to ensure that you have a solid understanding of the key concepts. You can access the Quick Review Questions through the Multimedia Library link in the left-hand navigation menu, in your online classroom.

The United States has been using unmanned drones to kill suspected terrorists that pose a threat to US national security. In certain circumstances, the United Nations has asserted that US actions violate international law while US officials state the targeted killings are acts of self-defense. Using the text, this week’s resources, and your own research, articulate a position in support or opposition to the actions of the U.S. Support your position using international law, the Laws of Armed Conflict (LOAC), and/or the judgments of major international organizations, such as the UN and the International Court of Justice.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references

CHAPTER REVIEW

1. International law began gaining prominence in Holland because of ______________.

a. increased international commerce associated with advancing sea transportation technologies.

b. increased military tension between Holland and Denmark.

c. increased political interaction between Holland, Russia, and England.

d. decreased transaction costs associated with sea transportation.

2. ______________ and ______________ are the most concrete forms of international law.

a. Norms and Customary Law

b. Judicial Briefs and Treaties

c. Conventions and Norms

d. Treaties and Conventions

3. Customary law is a form of international law in which a practice has not yet been ______________ but is considered law by its widespread practice.

a. written

b. signed

c. codified

d. interpreted

4. International legal precedents play what role in shaping international law and society?

a. establishing wider acceptance and legitimacy of the rule of law

b. allowing judges to expand their opinions to a wider audience

c. establishing the ICC as a purveyor of international norms

d. creating legitimacy for the ICC

5. ______________ is an example of the institutionalization of a norm that shapes global society and the behavior of states.

a. Unilateralism

b. Multilateralism

c. Customary practices

d. Human rights

6. The 1949 Geneva Conventions on the Laws of War had what shortcoming? They

a. failed to address intrastate war (civil war).

b. were not signed by the United States.

c. were never codified.

d. did not protect soldiers in prison camps.

7. Which of the following is an example of a recent development in the economic and commercial sector of international law?

a. Anti-Bribery Treaty

b. Anti-Lobbying Treaty

c. non-negotiable trade compacts

d. Most Favored Nation (MFN) inclusive trading pacts

8. According to the text, what is one important human rights convention that immediately followed the Tokyo and Nuremburg war crimes trials?

a. International Convention on the Suppression and the Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid

b. UN Genocide Convention

c. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination

d. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment

9. According to the authors, what protocol represents the first major international attempt to control environmental damage collectively?

a. 1900 Nairobi Protocol

b. 2010 Copenhagen Protocol

c. 1987 Montreal Protocol

d. 1997 Kyoto Protocol

10. The 1998 Rome Treaty was designed to establish a new statute for what international body?

a. The Hague

b. The UN Security Council

c. The International Criminal Court

d. The European Court of Human Rights

11. Article 2 of the UN Charter commits UN member states to ______________.

a. refrain… from the threat or use of force [toward] any state.

b. participate collectively in all UN programs.

c. protect collectively the headquarters of the UN [and its member states].

d. provide logistical support [for any and all] UN peacekeeping missions.

12. ______________ is the essential idea of collective security.

a. Every nation for itself

b. All against one

c. All against all

d. Peace at all costs

13. Collective security is understood as an alternative to what type of general security system?

a. collective action pacts

b. the Vienna Treaty of 1815

c. the Geneva Accords

d. balance-of-power mechanisms

14. The main difference between the UN collective security system and that of the League of Nations was what?

a. The UN placed more of the burden on individual states to maintain order within their territorial boundaries.

b. The UN did not place exclusive reliance on collective security as the sole mechanism to maintain international peace.

c. The UN included members states that were fundamentally opposed to the idea of war.

d. The UN excluded any and all states that were hostile to the great powers of the time.

15. What is one potential problem of collective security arrangements?

a. A potential exists for them to create larger conflicts.

b. States will not get along and end up going to war with each other.

c. They will compete with the UN.

d. The UN will make it difficult for individual states to create their own national armies.

16. Offensive security alliances are primarily used for what purpose?

a. to engage in military training exercises

b. to seek advantage, upsetting the existing order or balance of power

c. to create close military relations between or among states

d. to pursue arms control and thus reduce defense expenditures

17. What collective good do military alliances seek to produce?

a. security

b. power

c. military capabilities

d. peace

18. The text defines which of the following as a key political question for military alliances to consider?

a. Who will contribute the most troops?

b. Where will the headquarters be located?

c. Who will lead the alliance?

d. Who will pay for the alliance and how much?

19. Which of the following agreements qualifies as a formal alliance, as defined in the text?

a. the 2003 Iraq War coalition

b. the 1991 Gulf War coalition

c. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

d. the U.S.-Israeli military partnership

20. The example of NATO illustrates which of the following ideas concerning military alliances?

a. The purpose of alliances can shift over time.

b. Once the purpose of an alliance is accomplished, it should be dissolved.

c. Only large alliances are valuable.

d. Military alliances should always act in a unanimous manner or risk dissolving. (Kauppi 292)

Kauppi, Paul R. Viotti and Mark V. International Relations and World Politics,

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