The existence of banks ______.
Decisions about monetary policy are made by ______.
Open market operations occur when the Fed _______.
If the Fed conducts an open market purchase _______.
The federal funds rate is the interest rate on ______, and is controlled by the _______.
The opportunity cost of holding money is ______.
The main objective of contractionary monetary policy is to ______.
An increase in interest rates will lead to a(n) ______.