Confined Space Emergency Response: Assessing Employer and Fire Department Practices.
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Wilson, Michael P.; Madison, Heather N.; Healy, Stephen B.
Labor Occupational Health PROGRAM, Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Moraga-Orinda Fire Protection District
Journal of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene (J OCCUP ENVIRON HYG), 2012 Feb; 9 (2): 120-8.
journal article – research, tables/charts
Occupational Hazards — Epidemiology — United States
Occupational-Related Injuries — Mortality — United States
Human; United States; Male; Female; Adult; Firefighting; Time; Organizational Policies; United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration; Questionnaires;
Funding Source; Prevalence
An emergency response plan for industrial permit-required confined space entry is essential for employee safety and is legally required. Maintaining a trained confined
space rescue team, however, is costly and technically challenging. Some employers turn to public fire departments to meet their emergency response requirements. The
confined space emergency response practices of employers and fire departments have not been previously assessed. We present (1) federal data on the U.S. occurrence
between 1992 and 2005 of confined space fatal incidents involving toxic and/or oxygen-deficient atmospheres; (2) SURVEY data from 21 large companies on permit-required
confined space emergency response practices; (3) data on fire department arrival times; and (4) estimates by 10 senior fire officers of fire department rescue times
for confined space incidents. Between 1992 and 2005, 431 confined space incidents that met the case definition claimed 530 lives, or about 0.63% of the 84,446 all-
cause U.S. occupational fatal injuries that occurred during this period. Eighty-seven (20%) incidents resulted in multiple fatalities. Twelve (57%) of 21 surveyed
companies reported that they relied on the fire department for permit-required confined space emergency response. Median fire department arrival times were about 5 min
for engines and 7 min for technical rescue units. Fire department confined space rescue time estimates ranged from 48 to 123 min and increased to 70 and 173 min when
hazardous materials were present. The study illustrates that (1) confined space incidents represent a small but continuing source of fatal OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES in the
United States; (2) a sizeable portion of employers may be relying on public fire departments for permit-required confined space emergency response; and (3) in the
event of a life-threatening emergency, fire departments usually are not able to effect a confined space rescue in a timely manner. We propose that the appropriate role
for the fire department is to support a properly trained and equipped on-site rescue team and to provide advanced life support intervention following extrication and
during ambulance transportation.
Biomedical; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Expert Peer Reviewed; Peer Reviewed; USA
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