1. Prepare income statements for the company for each of its first two years under variable costing. 2. What are the difference between the absorption costing income and the variable costing income for these two years. 3. Safety Chemical produces and sells an ice-­melting granular used on roadways and sidewalks in winter. It annually produces and sells about 100 tons of its granular.

Powell Company produces a single product. Its income statement under absorption costing for its first two years of operation follow.

2010 2011
Sales ($44 per unit) $ 968,000 $ 1,848,000
Cost of goods sold ($29 per unit) 638,000 1,218,000

Gross margin 330,000 630,000
Selling and administrative expenses 294,500 339,500

Net income $ 35,500 $ 290,500

Additional Information
a. Sales and production data for these first two years follow.
2010 2011
Units produced 32,000 32,000
Units sold 22,000 42,000

b. Variable cost per unit and total fixed costs are unchanged during 2010 and 2011. The company’s $29 per unit product cost consists of the following.

Direct materials $ 4
Direct labor 8
Variable overhead 7
Fixed overhead ($320,000/32,000 units) 10

Total product cost per unit $ 29

c. Selling and administrative expenses consist of the following.

2010 2011
Variable selling and administrative ($2.25 per unit) $ 49,500 $ 94,500
Fixed selling and administrative 245,000 245,000

Total selling and administrative $ 294,500 $ 339,500

1. Prepare income statements for the company for each of its first two years under variable costing.

2. What are the difference between the absorption costing income and the variable costing income for these two years.

3. Safety Chemical produces and sells an ice-­melting granular used on roadways and sidewalks in winter. It annually produces and sells about 100 tons of its granular. In its nine-­year history, the company has never reported a net loss. However, because of this year’s unusually mild winter, projected demand for its product is only 65 tons. Based on its predicted production and sales of 65 tons, the company projects the following income statement (under absorption costing).

Sales (65 tons at $21,000 per ton) $1,365,000
Cost of goods sold (65 tons at $16,000 per ton) 1,040,000

Gross margin 325,000
Selling and administrative expenses 345,800

Net loss $ (20,800)

Its product cost information follows and consists mainly of fixed cost because of its automated production process requiring expensive equipment.

Variable direct labor and material costs per ton $ 4,615
Fixed cost per ton ($740,000 ÷ 65 tons) 11,385

Total product cost per ton $ 16,000

Selling and administrative expenses consist of variable selling and administrative expenses of $320 per ton and fixed selling and administrative expenses of $325,000 per year. The company’s president is concerned about the adverse reaction from its creditors and shareholders if the projected net loss is reported. The operations manager mentions that since the company has large storage capacity, it can report a net income by keeping its production at the usual 100-­ton level even though it expects to sell only 65 tons. The president was puzzled by the suggestion that the company can report income by producing more without increasing sales.

Required:
1.1 Can the company report a net income by increasing production to 100 tons and storing the excess production in inventory?

1.2 Prepare an income statement (using absorption costing) based on production of 100 tons and sales of 65 tons.

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